Invited Speakers

IUS 2018 offers invited lectures in the following domains:

Medical Ultrasonics

1. Transcranial Acoustoelectric Brain Imaging: Progress and Challenges
Russell Witte
Russell Witte
University of Arizona Health Sciences, Arizona, US
Email contact: rwitte@email.arizona.edu
Personal website: Website Russell Witte

2. Ultrasound image reconstruction using deep learning: a new paradigm
Maxime Gasse
Maxime Gasse
Creatis Medical Imaging Research Centre, INSA, Lyon, France
Email contact: maxime.gasse@creatis.insa-lyon.fr

3. Molecular modulation of biological membranes by phospholipid-shelled microbubbles
Eleanor Stride
Eleanor Stride
Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Oxford University, UK
Email contact: Eleanor.stride@eng.ox.ac.uk
Personal website: Website Eleanor Stride

4. Matrix transducers for real-time 3D imaging: From intra-cardiac to trans-cranial applications
Nico de Jong
Nico de Jong
Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands / TU Delft, Delft, the Netherlands
Email contact: n.dejong@erasmusmc.nl
Personal website: Website Nico de Jong

5. Passive elastography: a seismic imaging of soft tissues
Stefan Catheline
Stefan Catheline
LabTAU, INSERM, Lyon, France
Email contact: stefan.catheline@inserm.fr

6. Next-generation echocardiography – opportunities and challenges
Lasse Lovstakken
Lasse Lovstakken
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
Email contact: lasse.lovstakken@ntnu.no
Personal website: Website Lasse Lovstakken


Sensors, NDE & Industrial application

1. Automated Robotically Enabled Ultrasonic Sensing for Additive Manufacturing
Anthony Gachagan
Anthony Gachagan
Centre for Ultrasonic Engineering, University of Strathclyde
Email contact: a.gachagan@strath.ac.uk
Personal website: Website Anthony Gachagan

2. Information transmission through solids using Ultrasound
Jafar Saniie
Jafar Saniie
Illinois Institute of Technology
Email contact: saniie@iit.edu
Personal website: Website Jafar Saniie

3. Full-field Laser-Ultrasound for Practical Nondestructive Inspection
Eric B. Flynn
Eric Flynn
Intelligence and Space Research Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory
Personal website: Website Eric Flynn


 Physical acoustics

1. Magnetic-Free Radio Frequency Circulator Based on Spatiotemporal Modulation of MEMS Resonators
Matteo Rinaldi
Matteo Rinaldi
Northeastern University
Email contact: rinaldi@ece.neu.edu
Personal website: Website Matteo Rinaldi

2. Moving acoustic field for the control of electronic excitations in semiconductor nanostructures
Paulo V. Santos
Paulo V. Santos
Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Berlin, Germany
Email contact: santos@pdi-berlin.de
Personal website: Website Paulo V. Santos

3. Evaluation method for high-power piezoelectric materials and devices
Takeshi Morita
Takeshi Morita
Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo
Email contact: morita@edu.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp
Personal website: Website Takeshi Morita


Micro-acoustics SAW, FBAR, MEMS

1. Hierarchical Cascading in FEM Simulations of SAW Devices
Julius Koskela  Victor Plessky
Julius Koskela  Victor Plessky
GVR Trade, SA  and Resonant Inc.
Email contact: julkoske@welho.com and victor.plessky@gmail.com

2. Transverse modes in temperature compensated surface acoustic wave devices
Ken-ya Hashimoto
Ken-ya Hashimoto
Chiba University
Email contact: k.hashimoto@faculty.chiba-u.jp

3. Prof. Eric Adler's Legacy to Microwave Acoustics
Mauricio Pereira da Cunha
Mauricio Pereira da Cunha
University of Maine
Email contact: mdacunha@maine.edu


Transducers and transducers material

1. Collapse-mode CMUT: design and characterization
Chris van Heesch
Chris van Heesch
Philips Research, Eindhoven, the Netherlands
Email contact: chris.van.heesch@philips.com

2. Piezoelectric Thin Films for Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers
Susan Trolier-McKinstry
Susan Trolier-McKinstry
The Pennsylvania State University, PA 16802, USA
Email contact: STMcKinstry@psu.edu
Personal website: Website Susan Trolier-McKinstry

3. Technology development of Photoacousitc imaging system in CANON
Kenichi Nagae
Kenichi Nagae
Canon Inc., Tokyo, Japan
Email contact: nagae.ken-ichi@mail.canon

  • Transcranial Acoustoelectric Brain Imaging: Progress and Challenges

    Transcranial Acoustoelectric Brain Imaging (tABI) is a revolutionary concept capable of unprecedented resolution and accuracy for resolving current sources deep in the human brain. As a hybrid modality, tABI combines principles of ultrasound (US) imaging with radiofrequency recording of a signature acoustoelectric (AE) interaction signal to map physiologic current in 4D (volume + time). Unlike electroencephalography (EEG), which suffers from poor spatial resolution and inaccuracies due to blurring of electrical signals as they pass through the brain and skull, spatial resolution for tABI is primarily determined by properties of the US beam. This presentation will describe advantages and limitations of tABI technology, including recent progress and key challenges towards a new modality for noninvasive functional human brain imaging at the mm and ms scales. As a safe, mobile, and real-time platform designed for human brain mapping, tABI could revolutionize our understanding of a broad spectrum of brain disorders that are strongly associated with abnormal electrical conduction in the cortex and deep brain structures–from epilepsy and Parkinson’s to depression.

  • Russell S. Witte graduated with Honors in Physics from University of Arizona (BS, 1993) and Bioengineering from Arizona State University (PhD, 2002), where he exploited chronic microelectrode arrays to study sensory coding and learning-induced plasticity in the mammalian brain (mentor, Daryl Kipke). Dr. Witte joined the Biomedical Ultrasound Laboratory at the University of Michigan as a postdoctoral fellow (mentor: Matt O’Donnell) to overcome limitations with invasive electrode technology and noninvasive functional brain imaging, such as fMRI and EEG. While in Ann Arbor, he helped develop numerous hybrid imaging approaches integrating light, ultrasound, and microwaves to map optical, mechanical, and dielectric properties of tissue at high spatial resolution (<1 mm). Dr. Witte now resides in his hometown of Tucson, where he is Associate Professor of Medical Imaging, Biomedical Engineering, and Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona. His Experimental Ultrasound and Neural Imaging Laboratory (EUNIL) continues to develop hybrid imaging methods to address grand medical challenges, such as high resolution electrical mapping of the human heart and brain. He also recently started his own medical device company, ElectroSonix LLC, to facilitate development and translation of these impactful technologies. The ultimate goal of Dr. Witte’s research is to improve patient care by providing tools for better diagnostic accuracy and treatment-decision making for conditions ranging from epilepsy and arrhythmia to breast cancer.

  • Russell S. Witte graduated with Honors in Physics from University of Arizona (BS, 1993) and Bioengineering from Arizona State University (PhD, 2002), where he exploited chronic microelectrode arrays to study sensory coding and learning-induced plasticity in the mammalian brain (mentor, Daryl Kipke). Dr. Witte joined the Biomedical Ultrasound Laboratory at the University of Michigan as a postdoctoral fellow (mentor: Matt O’Donnell) to overcome limitations with invasive electrode technology and noninvasive functional brain imaging, such as fMRI and EEG. While in Ann Arbor, he helped develop numerous hybrid imaging approaches integrating light, ultrasound, and microwaves to map optical, mechanical, and dielectric properties of tissue at high spatial resolution (<1 mm). Dr. Witte now resides in his hometown of Tucson, where he is Associate Professor of Medical Imaging, Biomedical Engineering, and Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona. His Experimental Ultrasound and Neural Imaging Laboratory (EUNIL) continues to develop hybrid imaging methods to address grand medical challenges, such as high resolution electrical mapping of the human heart and brain. He also recently started his own medical device company, ElectroSonix LLC, to facilitate development and translation of these impactful technologies. The ultimate goal of Dr. Witte’s research is to improve patient care by providing tools for better diagnostic accuracy and treatment-decision making for conditions ranging from epilepsy and arrhythmia to breast cancer.

  • Ultrasound image reconstruction using deep learning: a new paradigm

    In the past few years, deep learning imposed itself as a disruptive technique that has been adopted in many scientific and industrial fields, along with a new problem-solving paradigm: machine learning. While the historical success of deep learning is grounded in natural image classification, remarkable results are regularly obtained on a wide range of tasks, e.g. image segmentation, object localization, speech synthesis, text-to-text translation, or game-playing. The medical imaging community naturally benefits from these recent advances, and deep learning is now a prominent tool for solving a wide range of problems, e.g. lesion detection, tumor grading, or tissue segmentation. It is only very recently that deep learning has been applied to image reconstruction in the context of ultrasound imaging, with promising results that outperform traditional approaches. In this context, the purpose of this talk is: i) to expose to the ultrasound imaging community the core ideas of deep learning (supervised learning, model architectures, back-propagation); ii) to highlight the difference between the analytical and the machine learning paradigms in the context of ultrasound imaging; iii) to show the great potential of this technique for ultrasound image reconstruction, with recent successes in learning PW compounding and beamforming models. We will conclude the talk by exposing some promising directions for deep learning in ultrasound imaging, as well as some typical problems and questions that arise with this new paradigm.

  • Maxime Gasse obtained a Ph.D. in machine learning from the University of Lyon (France) in early 2017. He then spent a full year as a post-doc within the CREATIS medical imaging lab, during which he has been working on improving ultrasound imaging methods with deep learning, under the supervision of Denis Friboulet and Fabien Millioz. He very recently joined the “Data Science for Real-Time Decision-Making” Canada Excellence Research Chair in Montréal for his second post-doc, where he is working on applying deep learning methods to solve operational research problems, under the supervision of Andrea Lodi and Laurent Charlin.

  • Maxime Gasse obtained a Ph.D. in machine learning from the University of Lyon (France) in early 2017. He then spent a full year as a post-doc within the CREATIS medical imaging lab, during which he has been working on improving ultrasound imaging methods with deep learning, under the supervision of Denis Friboulet and Fabien Millioz. He very recently joined the “Data Science for Real-Time Decision-Making” Canada Excellence Research Chair in Montréal for his second post-doc, where he is working on applying deep learning methods to solve operational research problems, under the supervision of Andrea Lodi and Laurent Charlin.

  • Molecular Modulation of Biological Membranes by Phospholipid Microbubbles

    Sonoporation – the temporary permeabilisation of cell membranes following exposure to microbubbles and ultrasound –  has considerable potential for therapeutic delivery. However, understanding of the underlying mechanisms is far from complete. Recent studies have demonstrated that transfer of material takes place between phospholipid-coated microbubbles and cell membranes. The aim of our research was to investigate the impact of this transfer on membrane properties and cell permeability. Both artificial and biological cells were studied in an acoustofluidic device which enabled controlled exposure to both microbubbles and different ultrasound parameters. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy techniques were used to quantify changes in membrane molecular packing, viscosity and permeability to model drugs of different molecular weights. The results indicate that transfer of both phospholipids and other microbubble coating constituents can significantly alter the organization of molecules in both synthetic and biological membranes; and that this occurs even in the absence of ultrasound exposure. The relationship between molecular organization and permeability was found to be dependent upon multiple factors including the composition of the microbubble coating and the phase state of the cell membrane as well as the ultrasound exposure parameters. These results may help to explain why there is very wide variability in reported sonoporation efficiency. They also indicate the potential for optimising microbubble formulations for therapeutic applications.

  • Eleanor Stride is a Professor of Engineering Science specialising in the fabrication of nano and microscale devices for targeted drug delivery. She obtained her BEng and PhD in Mechanical Engineering from UCL where she subsequently appointed to a lectureship and a Royal Academy of Engineering and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Research Fellowship. In 2011 she was awarded an EPSRC Challenging Engineering grant and joined the Biomedical Ultrasonics, Biotherapy and Biopharmaceutical Laboratory (BUBBL) in the Oxford Institute of Biomedical Engineering, where she became a Professor in 2014. Her work has been recognized through the award of a Philip Leverhulme prize, The EPSRC & Journal of the Royal Society Interface Award, the 2009 Engineering Medal at the Parliamentary Science, Engineering & Technology for Britain awards, the 2013 Bruce Lindsay Award from the Acoustical Society of America and the 2015 IET AF Harvey prize. She was also made a fellow of the ERA foundation for her contributions to public engagement and promotion of Engineering, for example through the Born to Engineer series and documentaries for the BBC. In 2016 she was nominated as one of the top 50 most influential Women in Engineering.

  • Eleanor Stride is a Professor of Engineering Science specialising in the fabrication of nano and microscale devices for targeted drug delivery. She obtained her BEng and PhD in Mechanical Engineering from UCL where she subsequently appointed to a lectureship and a Royal Academy of Engineering and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Research Fellowship. In 2011 she was awarded an EPSRC Challenging Engineering grant and joined the Biomedical Ultrasonics, Biotherapy and Biopharmaceutical Laboratory (BUBBL) in the Oxford Institute of Biomedical Engineering, where she became a Professor in 2014. Her work has been recognized through the award of a Philip Leverhulme prize, The EPSRC & Journal of the Royal Society Interface Award, the 2009 Engineering Medal at the Parliamentary Science, Engineering & Technology for Britain awards, the 2013 Bruce Lindsay Award from the Acoustical Society of America and the 2015 IET AF Harvey prize. She was also made a fellow of the ERA foundation for her contributions to public engagement and promotion of Engineering, for example through the Born to Engineer series and documentaries for the BBC. In 2016 she was nominated as one of the top 50 most influential Women in Engineering.

  • Matrix transducers for real-time 3D imaging: From intra-cardiac to trans-cranial applications

    New developments in ultrasound imaging hardware, image reconstruction and molecular contrast agents are enabling completely new ranges of diagnostics and therapy in the cardiovascular and neurological field with ultrasound. This offers excellent opportunities to tackle the major existing and evolving healthcare threats, such as heart failure, arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, neurological disorders and cancer. So, new transducers for 4D cardiovascular function and flow, transducers to enable new 3D applications, and functional and anatomical ultrasound imaging of the brain are required. We are developing matrix transducers ranging to be used inside very small vessels, intra-cardiac but also external devices to be used for carotid scanning and monitoring the brain of preterm babies. To realize matrix transducer we build the PZT transducer on top of a custom made ASIC (application specific intergrated circuit). The ASIC take care of selecting the elements in transmission and for amplifying the received signal and if appropriate perform pre-processing like micro-beam forming and/or digitisation. Examples of matrix transducers are 3D-forward looking IVUS having 80 elements (15 MHz, 80 µm) connected with only one coax cable. A second example is a miniature 3D TEE transducer for pediatric use or for prolonged monitoring in adults. Or a large-aperture 3D transducer for carotid imaging consisting of 20,000 acoustic PZT elements capable of acquiring 1000 volumes per second. Or a tiny 3D transducer for intracardiac use with digital output. Or a 3D transducer for monitoring the brain perfusion in preterm infants, through the fontanel anticipating to have a frequency of 15 MHz, a pitch of 50 µm and more than 50,000 elements. Finally, a spiral array will be presented with only 256 elements which is directly connected to a Ula-op and Verasonics system.

  • Nico de Jong (1954) graduated from Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, in 1978. He got his M.Sc. in Applied Physics in the field of pattern recognition. In 1993 he received his Ph.D. for “Acoustic properties of ultrasound contrast agents.” Since 1980, he is staff member of Biomedical Engineering of the Thoraxcenter of the Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, headed by prof. Klaas Bom (since 2003 prof. Ton van der Steen). Next to his ongoing appointment at the Erasmus MC he has had several appoints at Technical Universities. From 2003 to 2011 he was part-time full professor at the University of Twente in the group Physics of Fluids headed by prof. Detlef Lohse, from 2011- 2015 he was part time full professor at the Technical University in Delft. In 2015 he became head of the the Acoustical Wavefield Imaging group of the Technical University Delft (60%). He is founder and organizer of the annual European Symposia (January 2018 for the 22nd time, see www.echocontrast.nl) on Ultrasound Contrast Imaging, held in Rotterdam and attended by approximately 175 scientists from universities and industries all over the world. He is on the safety committee of WFUMB (World Federation of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology), associate editor of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology and has been guest editor for special issues of several journals. Over the last 5 years he has given more than 30 invited lectures and has given numerous scientific presentations for international industries. He teaches on Technical Universities and the ErasmusMC. He has graduated 29 PhD students and is currently supervising more than 10 PhD students.

  • Nico de Jong (1954) graduated from Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, in 1978. He got his M.Sc. in Applied Physics in the field of pattern recognition. In 1993 he received his Ph.D. for “Acoustic properties of ultrasound contrast agents.” Since 1980, he is staff member of Biomedical Engineering of the Thoraxcenter of the Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, headed by prof. Klaas Bom (since 2003 prof. Ton van der Steen). Next to his ongoing appointment at the Erasmus MC he has had several appoints at Technical Universities. From 2003 to 2011 he was part-time full professor at the University of Twente in the group Physics of Fluids headed by prof. Detlef Lohse, from 2011- 2015 he was part time full professor at the Technical University in Delft. In 2015 he became head of the the Acoustical Wavefield Imaging group of the Technical University Delft (60%). He is founder and organizer of the annual European Symposia (January 2018 for the 22nd time, see www.echocontrast.nl) on Ultrasound Contrast Imaging, held in Rotterdam and attended by approximately 175 scientists from universities and industries all over the world. He is on the safety committee of WFUMB (World Federation of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology), associate editor of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology and has been guest editor for special issues of several journals. Over the last 5 years he has given more than 30 invited lectures and has given numerous scientific presentations for international industries. He teaches on Technical Universities and the ErasmusMC. He has graduated 29 PhD students and is currently supervising more than 10 PhD students.

  • Passive elastography: a seismic imaging of soft tissues

    Elastography, sometimes referred as seismology of the human body, is an imaging modality recently implemented on medical ultrasound systems. It allows to measure shear waves within soft tissues and gives a tomography reconstruction of the shear elasticity. This elasticity map is useful for early cancer detection. A general overview of this field is given in the first part of the presentation as well as latest developments. The second part, is devoted to the application of time reversal or noise correlation technique in the field of elastography. The idea, as in seismology, is to take advantage of shear waves naturally present in the human body due to muscles activities to construct shear elasticity map of soft tissues. It is thus a passive elastography approach since no shear wave sources are used. In the third part some examples are provided using ultrasounds, MRI or optic to detect shear waves and reconstruct a speed tomography in a human liver, thyroid, brain, in a mouse eye and a single cell.

  • Stefan Catheline received the Diplome d’Etudes Approfondies (M.Sc. degree) in physics and acoustics (1994), his Ph.D. degree in physics (1998) from University of Paris VII (Denis Diderot) for his work on transient elastography and his “Habilitation de Recherche” in 2006. After a post doc at the University of California, San Diego, he become an assistant Professor at University of Paris VII in 1999 and joined the laboratory Ondes et Acoustique at the Ecole Supérieur de Physique et de Chimie Industrielle de la ville de Paris (ESPCI). From 2005, he has been working for a two years mission at the University of Montevideo (Uruguay) and was assistant Professor at University of Grenoble at Isterre until 2012. He is now Director of research at INSERM unit 1032, in the Laboratory of Therapeutic Applications of Ultrasound (LabTAU) directed by Jean-Yves Chapelon in Lyon. His current research activities at the head of the team “Ondes et instrumentation” include acoustic topics such as elastography, time reversal, seismology, reverberant cavities, nonlinear elasticity, tactile interface, source localization as well as HIFU. He holds 8 patents in the field of ultrasound and seismology and wrote more than 70 articles. He has been co-founder of two companies: Sensitive Object in the field of acoustic interactivity and SEISME in the field of elastography.

  • Stefan Catheline received the Diplome d’Etudes Approfondies (M.Sc. degree) in physics and acoustics (1994), his Ph.D. degree in physics (1998) from University of Paris VII (Denis Diderot) for his work on transient elastography and his “Habilitation de Recherche” in 2006. After a post doc at the University of California, San Diego, he become an assistant Professor at University of Paris VII in 1999 and joined the laboratory Ondes et Acoustique at the Ecole Supérieur de Physique et de Chimie Industrielle de la ville de Paris (ESPCI). From 2005, he has been working for a two years mission at the University of Montevideo (Uruguay) and was assistant Professor at University of Grenoble at Isterre until 2012. He is now Director of research at INSERM unit 1032, in the Laboratory of Therapeutic Applications of Ultrasound (LabTAU) directed by Jean-Yves Chapelon in Lyon. His current research activities at the head of the team “Ondes et instrumentation” include acoustic topics such as elastography, time reversal, seismology, reverberant cavities, nonlinear elasticity, tactile interface, source localization as well as HIFU. He holds 8 patents in the field of ultrasound and seismology and wrote more than 70 articles. He has been co-founder of two companies: Sensitive Object in the field of acoustic interactivity and SEISME in the field of elastography.

  • Next-generation echocardiography – opportunities and challenges

    Echocardiography is going through a technology-enabled revolution. With the availability of real-time channel data acquisition and software beamforming, new opportunities for improved image quality, more accurate quantification, and higher frame rates in 2D and 3D cardiac imaging has emerged. For instance, by exploiting new flexibility in the channel data domain combined with increased processing capabilities, improved spatial and contrast resolution can be achieved using dynamic transmit focusing, and through more advanced adaptive and coherence-based beamforming approaches. Further, by utilizing wide transmit beams and parallel beamforming improved quantification based on ultrafast imaging has shown promise, including high-frame-rate deformation imaging and elastography, and angle-independent blood flow imaging.

    In this talk, fundamental clinical and technical imaging challenges in cardiac imaging will be presented, and current clinical state of the art imaging technology will be demonstrated. This is the foundation for the next-generation cardiac imaging, which will need to demonstrate both clinical feasibility and ease-of-use. Relevant discussion topics include the inherent trade-offs between frame rate, penetration and image quality, as well as the importance of 2nd harmonic imaging for state-of-the-art echocardiography. Attention is given to both 2D and 3D imaging, and the most recent cardiac imaging technology proposed from the ultrasound community will be presented.

  • Lasse Løvstakken is a Professor at the Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), in Trondheim, Norway. His research efforts are focused towards medical ultrasound imaging, with interests in image formation, signal processing, machine learning, and visualization. Clinical applications are mainly in cardiovascular disease. He has published > 50 papers and is coinventor of 2 patents in the field of medical ultrasound imaging, and has supervised 5 PhD students to completion. His main contributions have been dedicated to the development and application of improved methods for blood flow imaging using ultrasound. He is recipient of the Young Research Talent grant from the Norwegian Research Council, and a member of the NTNU Outstanding Academic Fellows program. He serves as a member of the technical program committee for the IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium.

  • Lasse Løvstakken is a Professor at the Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), in Trondheim, Norway. His research efforts are focused towards medical ultrasound imaging, with interests in image formation, signal processing, machine learning, and visualization. Clinical applications are mainly in cardiovascular disease. He has published > 50 papers and is coinventor of 2 patents in the field of medical ultrasound imaging, and has supervised 5 PhD students to completion. His main contributions have been dedicated to the development and application of improved methods for blood flow imaging using ultrasound. He is recipient of the Young Research Talent grant from the Norwegian Research Council, and a member of the NTNU Outstanding Academic Fellows program. He serves as a member of the technical program committee for the IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium.

  • Automated Robotically Enabled Ultrasonic Sensing for Additive Manufacturing

    As Additive Manufacture (AM) parts become increasingly integrated into manufacturing production of large, complex components, the requirement for in-process monitoring of part quality is evident. For many industrial applications, the emergence of wire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) as a viable fabrication approach is exciting and opening many new avenues for research and manufacture. As these AM approaches evolve, the primary barrier to commercial uptake is assuring the quality of the part. This can obviously be achieved using conventional non-destructive evaluation (NDE) approaches after the part has been fabricated, but this will then simply be a pass-fail test and will be expensive if a fault arises during the AM process. The solution is to continually inspect the part during the AM process to ensure that the finished component is fit for purpose.

    There are significant environmental and coupling challenges to overcome to deploy a sensor system within a WAAM process. In fact, these challenges also relate to other manufacturing techniques, with in-process monitoring of welding processes also of particular interest to industry. Within these manufacturing processes, there are elevated temperatures, high levels of electromagnetic noise, complex shaped component geometries and the automation approach to address in the design of an appropriate sensor system. A number of NDE sensor approaches have been applied to in-process monitoring with varying degrees of success.

    This paper will introduce the subject of in-process monitoring of AM processes and highlight the specific challenges associated with WAAM. A review of sensor approaches that have been reported will be discussed, before focussing on the current technologies under investigation at Strathclyde. Preliminary trials using an air-coupled transducer system highlighted the potential to transmit ultrasonic Lamb waves through the weld pool to assess weld quality. The next step is to develop a phased array system which can be integrated into the AM process and our current work in this area will be discussed.  Optical techniques are also useful in assessing material quality and can be integrated with other sensor data to enhance knowledge of the process. Laser ultrasonic techniques are ideally suited to remote inspection in challenging environments and recent advances in Laser Induced Phased Arrays is of particular interest. The final aspect to be addressed is the automation of the sensor technology. In the research laboratory, we currently use Kuka robotic platforms to provide this capability and this approach is being used to develop the world’s first automated WAAM system.

  • Anthony Gachagan is the Director of the Centre for Ultrasonic Engineering (CUE), situated in the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering (EEE), at the University of Strathclyde. He obtained his BSc in Electronic and Microprocessor Engineering from Strathclyde in 1985. After 6 years working in industry, he returned to Strathclyde and completed his PhD on air-coupled piezocomposite transducers in 1996. He has been a professor in the EEE department since 2014 and was departmental Deputy Head for Research between 2014-2017.

    Prof Gachagan has worked in the field of ultrasonic engineering for over 25 years across a broad application range including NDE, sonar, bioacoustics, health, manufacturing and industrial process control. He has published over 120 papers, with his primary research interest centred around transduction: ultrasonic transducers and arrays, non-contact ultrasonic sensors, array imaging processing, high power ultrasound systems, and acoustic emission. His current research projects include the application of ultrasonic transducer systems for in-process monitoring of weld and additive manufacturing processes. Under his strategic leadership, CUE has grown in size to ~70 staff and research students, and evolved its core technical expertise to include automation and bioacoustics. He was the Academic Chair of the EPSRC/Industry funded Research Centre for Non-Destructive Evaluation (2015-2018) and is Chair of the industrial Scottish Branch of the British Institute of NDT (since 2013).

  • Anthony Gachagan is the Director of the Centre for Ultrasonic Engineering (CUE), situated in the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering (EEE), at the University of Strathclyde. He obtained his BSc in Electronic and Microprocessor Engineering from Strathclyde in 1985. After 6 years working in industry, he returned to Strathclyde and completed his PhD on air-coupled piezocomposite transducers in 1996. He has been a professor in the EEE department since 2014 and was departmental Deputy Head for Research between 2014-2017.

    Prof Gachagan has worked in the field of ultrasonic engineering for over 25 years across a broad application range including NDE, sonar, bioacoustics, health, manufacturing and industrial process control. He has published over 120 papers, with his primary research interest centred around transduction: ultrasonic transducers and arrays, non-contact ultrasonic sensors, array imaging processing, high power ultrasound systems, and acoustic emission. His current research projects include the application of ultrasonic transducer systems for in-process monitoring of weld and additive manufacturing processes. Under his strategic leadership, CUE has grown in size to ~70 staff and research students, and evolved its core technical expertise to include automation and bioacoustics. He was the Academic Chair of the EPSRC/Industry funded Research Centre for Non-Destructive Evaluation (2015-2018) and is Chair of the industrial Scottish Branch of the British Institute of NDT (since 2013).

  • Information transmission through solids using Ultrasound

    Ultrasonic signals can be utilized as a viable communication method to transmit information through gas, liquid, and solid channels or a mixed media consisting of a solid interfaced with liquid and/or gas.  For example, in underwater channels sound signals carrying data are efficient and consequently become a more practical and preferred communication method over electromagnetic message transmission which has limited signal penetration.  But even with sound waves, underwater communication channels cause many challenges, often unforeseen, due to absorption, scattering, refractions, reverberations, multipaths, doppler shifts, temperature, salinity, and acoustic scintillation.  Ultrasonic communication through the air is less prone to the environmental challenges that are often encountered in the underwater communications.  Ultrasonic communication in solid channels is also adversely affected by absorption, scattering, refractions, reverberations, beam skewing, dispersion, mode conversation, multipaths, and above all these challenges are compounded by the geometrical structure of solids and type of ultrasonic waves.  With solid structures many different ultrasonic wave types can be generated including Longitudinal (Compressional), Shear (Transverse), Surface-Rayleigh, Plate-Lamb (Symmetrical or Extensional Mode and Asymmetric or Flexural Mode), Plate-Love, and Stoneley (Leaky Rayleigh).  The type of waves that can be used are governed by the position of the transmitters and receivers on a solid structure where the quality of the signal for communication is limited by the composition and geometrical shape of the solids.  For this study we have developed a testbed platform based on the ZYNQ SoC (System-on-Chip) FPGA by Xilinx which offers reconfigurability and high performance computational capability, high speed signal converters, transmitting power amplifiers, low noise receiving amplifiers and transducers to conduct ultrasonic communication experiments for transmitting data, audio, and video signals. Theoretically, ASK (amplitude shift keying) or any form of digital modulation can be tested with the system using the concept of the software-defined radio (SDR). The received signal is very complex, primarily caused by dispersion, reverberation, and multipath effects.  We have examined this system using OOK (on and off keying), QPSK (quadrature phase shift keying), DQPSK (differential quadrature phase shift keying), and QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation).  This system was tested using differently structured solid channels and the results were compared using 0.5 and 2.5 MHz ultrasonic transducers.

  • Jafar Saniie (IEEE Fellow for contributions to ultrasonic signal processing for detection, estimation, and imaging) received his B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Maryland in 1974. He received his M.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering in 1977 from Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, and his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering in 1981 from Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. In 1981 Dr. Saniie joined the Department of Applied Physics, University of Helsinki, Finland, to conduct research in photothermal and photoacoustic imaging. Since 1983 he has been with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Illinois Institute of Technology where he is the Filmer Endowed Chair Professor, Department Chair, Director of the Embedded Computing and Signal Processing (ECASP) Research Laboratory, and Associate Chair.  Dr. Saniie’s research interests and activities are in ultrasonic signal and image processing, software-defined ultrasonic communications, statistical pattern recognition, estimation and detection, data compression, time-frequency analysis, embedded digital systems, digital signal processing with field programmable gate arrays, and ultrasonic nondestructive testing and imaging.  Dr. Saniie has been a Technical Program Committee member of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium since 1987 (The Chair of Sensors, NDE and Industrial Applications Group, 2004-2013), the Lead Guest Editor for the IEEE UFFC Special Issue on Ultrasonics and Ferroelectrics (August 2014) and the IEEE UFFC Special Issue on Novel Embedded Systems for Ultrasonic Imaging and Signal Processing (July 2012), Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control since 1994.  Dr. Saniie was the General Chair for the 2014 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium in Chicago. He served as the 2014-2017 Ultrasonics Vice President of the IEEE UFFC Society. He has over 320 publications and has supervised 33 Ph.D. dissertations.

  • Jafar Saniie (IEEE Fellow for contributions to ultrasonic signal processing for detection, estimation, and imaging) received his B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Maryland in 1974. He received his M.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering in 1977 from Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, and his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering in 1981 from Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. In 1981 Dr. Saniie joined the Department of Applied Physics, University of Helsinki, Finland, to conduct research in photothermal and photoacoustic imaging. Since 1983 he has been with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Illinois Institute of Technology where he is the Filmer Endowed Chair Professor, Department Chair, Director of the Embedded Computing and Signal Processing (ECASP) Research Laboratory, and Associate Chair.  Dr. Saniie’s research interests and activities are in ultrasonic signal and image processing, software-defined ultrasonic communications, statistical pattern recognition, estimation and detection, data compression, time-frequency analysis, embedded digital systems, digital signal processing with field programmable gate arrays, and ultrasonic nondestructive testing and imaging.  Dr. Saniie has been a Technical Program Committee member of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium since 1987 (The Chair of Sensors, NDE and Industrial Applications Group, 2004-2013), the Lead Guest Editor for the IEEE UFFC Special Issue on Ultrasonics and Ferroelectrics (August 2014) and the IEEE UFFC Special Issue on Novel Embedded Systems for Ultrasonic Imaging and Signal Processing (July 2012), Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control since 1994.  Dr. Saniie was the General Chair for the 2014 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium in Chicago. He served as the 2014-2017 Ultrasonics Vice President of the IEEE UFFC Society. He has over 320 publications and has supervised 33 Ph.D. dissertations.

  • Full-field Laser-Ultrasound for Practical Nondestructive Inspection

    Full-field measurements of propagating ultrasonic waves in solid structures can be made remotely using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). By repeatedly exciting the structure with the same transient ultrasonic signal, and measuring the response at a grid of points using the LDV, one can reconstruct the full-field propagation time history as if it was made simultaneously at all points. These full-field response measurements can provide valuable information for detecting structural defects such as cracking, corrosion, and delamination. However, the sensitivity of LDV systems is limited at typical ultrasonic frequencies and response levels, making it necessary to coat the inspection surface with a retroreflective layer, utilize dangerous laser power levels, or perform the scan very slowly with many averages at each point. These limitations have restricted full-field laser ultrasound to laboratory experiments and make it impractical for many deployed nondestructive inspection and structural health monitoring applications.

    Our research focuses on the use of steady, harmonic excitation in place of repeated transient excitation for full-field laser ultrasound inspection. With harmonic excitation, we realized several orders of magnitude improvement in signal level in ultrasonic LDV measurements, enabling scans with eye safe lasers on unmodified inspection surfaces at speeds of up to five square meters per minute. We’ve found that two classes of full-field analysis techniques to be especially effective when properly modified for harmonic response measurements: wavenumber spectroscopy and local gradient estimation. Wavenumber spectroscopy, which is effective at detecting in-plane defects, involves local analysis of the wavelengths of the ultrasonic waves in order to quantify changes in effective thickness using the Rayleigh-Lamb equations. Local gradient estimation, used for detecting out-of-plane-defects, attempts to identify discontinuities in the propagating waves that, in-turn, imply discontinuities in the material. Through a mix of Cramer Road Lower Bound calculations, lab experiments, and field trials, we explored the theoretical and real-world performance limitations of these harmonic laser ultrasound techniques for imaging composite delamination in aerospace structures, hidden corrosion in civil infrastructure, and in-plane cracking in steel containment vessels.

  • Eric Flynn is an R&D Engineer and Team Leader in the Intelligence and Space Research Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States. He completed his Ph.D. in Structural Engineering at the University of California, San Diego in 2010 as a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellow following his masters and bachelors studies in Engineering at Caltech and Harvey Mudd College. During his Ph.D., Eric invented a new Bayesian statistics framework for designing ultrasonic structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and was the lead developer of the SHMTools software package, a widely-used tool among SHM researchers. Prior to joining Los Alamos, Eric served as the SHM Lead at Metis Design, a technology leader in the development of ultrasonic structural health monitoring systems, where he researched new array-processing algorithms for analyzing multi-sensor ultrasonic guided wave data. His current research interests include ultrasonic non-destructive inspection, signal processing, and remote sensing. Eric has co-authored over 50 publications and was awarded an R&D 100 Award in 2014 and 2015 for his technology breakthroughs in ultrasonic guided-waves, an Achenbach Medal in 2015 for his contributions to the SHM community, and a Los Alamos National Laboratory Fellows Prize in 2017 for his research in laser-ultrasound.

  • Eric Flynn is an R&D Engineer and Team Leader in the Intelligence and Space Research Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States. He completed his Ph.D. in Structural Engineering at the University of California, San Diego in 2010 as a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellow following his masters and bachelors studies in Engineering at Caltech and Harvey Mudd College. During his Ph.D., Eric invented a new Bayesian statistics framework for designing ultrasonic structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and was the lead developer of the SHMTools software package, a widely-used tool among SHM researchers. Prior to joining Los Alamos, Eric served as the SHM Lead at Metis Design, a technology leader in the development of ultrasonic structural health monitoring systems, where he researched new array-processing algorithms for analyzing multi-sensor ultrasonic guided wave data. His current research interests include ultrasonic non-destructive inspection, signal processing, and remote sensing. Eric has co-authored over 50 publications and was awarded an R&D 100 Award in 2014 and 2015 for his technology breakthroughs in ultrasonic guided-waves, an Achenbach Medal in 2015 for his contributions to the SHM community, and a Los Alamos National Laboratory Fellows Prize in 2017 for his research in laser-ultrasound.

  • Magnetic-Free Radio Frequency Circulator Based on Spatiotemporal Modulation of MEMS Resonators

    Circulators are well-known RF components that utilize nonreciprocal (i.e. unidirectional) electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation to isolate transmit and receive paths in a wireless system providing two-way communications on the same frequency channel. The conventional approach for realizing circulators is based on magnetic biasing and ferromagnetic materials. However, despite their maturity and broad availability, magnetic circulators are largely unattractive for integration, due to their relatively large size (larger than 25 mm), the incompatibility of magnetic materials with IC technology, and geopolitical issues related to the limited availability of such materials in nature. These problems drove attempts to design active magnet-free non-reciprocal devices based on transistors, exploiting the fact that transistors are inherently non-reciprocal components. These approaches never became popular, due to their poor linearity and noise performance. An alternative approach that has recently gained a lot of attention for magnet-less non-reciprocity is based on imparting an effective angular momentum to a resonant circuit, through spatiotemporal modulation of three strongly-coupled resonant cavities with signals of the same magnitude and phase difference of 120°. So far, this approach has been realized on a printed-circuit board by using LC tanks. However, the use of inductors with limited Q-factor inevitably increases the circulator insertion loss and the overall device size and it requires the use of a relatively large modulation frequency (~1/10 of the RF frequency). Furthermore, the use of solid state varactors to implement the frequency modulation fundamentally limits the linearity of the circulator and complicates the modulation network. This talk will introduce a revolutionary approach to the problem that that merges for the first time angular-momentum biased devices with MEMS devices, thereby offering the possibility to build extremely high-Q resonators and filters while completely eliminating the need for inductors and solid-state varactors addressing the fundamental challenges that are currently hindering the full deployment of magnetic-free circulators. By means of fundamental innovations in MEMS design and fabrication, we demonstrated a magnetic-free radio-frequency (RF) Microelectromechanical Resonant Circulator (MIRC) architecture capable of achieving the linearity, bandwidth, insertion loss and isolation levels required for military and commercial systems at a chip-scale size, orders of magnitude smaller than any existing implementation of circulators commercially available to date. The magnetic-free non-reciprocity is achieved by imparting an effective angular momentum bias to a MEMS resonant circuit. The angular momentum is efficiently realized through spatiotemporal modulation of three strongly coupled high-Q (>1000) Aluminum Nitride (AlN) MEMS Resonators. Differently from previous demonstrations based on varactor-based frequency modulation of low-Q LC networks, we implemented the spatiotemporal modulation by means of switched capacitors which minimizes the complexity of the modulation network, increases the modulation efficiency and mitigates the fundamental linearity limitations associated with solid-state varactors. We experimentally demonstrated MIRC porotypes operating up to ~2.5 GHz with insertion loss < 4 dB; isolation>15 dB; P1dB>28 dBm and IIP3>40 dBm. Furthermore, due to the high Q of the MEMS resonators employed, strong non-reciprocity is achieved with an ultra-low modulation frequency (<0.5% of the RF frequency, orders of magnitude lower than previous demonstrations) which directly enables a total power consumption of only ~10s µW which is the lowest ever reported for magnetic-free RF circulators based on temporally modulated circuits.

  • Matteo Rinaldi is an Associate Professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering department at Northeastern University. Dr. Rinaldi received his Ph.D. degree in Electrical and Systems Engineering from the University of Pennsylvania in December 2010. He worked as a Postdoctoral Researcher at the University of Pennsylvania in 2011 and he joined the Electrical and Computer Engineering department at Northeastern University as an Assistant Professor in January 2012.

    Dr. Rinaldi’s research focuses on understanding and exploiting the fundamental properties of micro/nanomechanical structures and advanced nanomaterials to engineer new classes of micro and nanoelectromechanical systems (M/NEMS) with unique and enabling features applied to the areas of chemical, physical and biological sensing and low power reconfigurable radio communication systems. In particular, his group has been actively working on experimental research topics and practical applications to ultra-low power MEMS/NEMS sensors (infrared, magnetic, chemical and biological), plasmonic micro and nano electromechanical devices, medical micro systems and implantable micro devices for intra-body networks, reconfigurable radio frequency devices and systems, phase change material switches, 2D material enabled micro and nano mechanical devices.

    Dr. Rinaldi founded the Northeastern Sensors and Nano Systems laboratory, which currently hosts 1 research scientist, 1 postdoctoral researcher and 11 Ph.D. students. 2 Ph.D. students and 7 M.S. students graduated from Dr. Rinaldi’s lab since January 2012.

    The research in Dr. Rinaldi’s group is supported by several Federal grants (including DARPA, NSF, DHS) and the Keck foundation with a total funding of $10,450,151 (PI’s share: $6,351,872) since January 2012.

    Dr. Rinaldi has co-authored more than 90 publications in the aforementioned research areas and also holds 6 patents and more than 10 device patent applications in the field of MEMS/NEMS. Dr. Rinaldi’s total number of citations since 2009 is 1126, the h-index is 18, and the i-10 index is 31 (Google Scholar Citation Index 12/1/2017). Dr. Rinaldi’s findings on MEMS/NEMS sensors and radio frequency devices and systems are often highlighted in the press, with recent appearances on TechCrunch, Digital Trends, IEEE Spectrum, LaserFocusWorld, and several others. Dr. Rinaldi’s recent work on Zero-Power Infrared Sensors was featured on the cover of Nature Nanotechnology in October 2017.

    Dr. Rinaldi was the recipient of the IEEE Sensors Council Early Career Award in 2015, the NSF CAREER Award in 2014 and the DARPA Young Faculty Award class of 2012. He received the Best Student Paper Award at the 2009, 2011, 2015 (with his student) and 2017 (with his student) IEEE International Frequency Control Symposiums and the Outstanding Paper Award at the 18th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, Transducers 2015 (with his student).

  • Matteo Rinaldi is an Associate Professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering department at Northeastern University. Dr. Rinaldi received his Ph.D. degree in Electrical and Systems Engineering from the University of Pennsylvania in December 2010. He worked as a Postdoctoral Researcher at the University of Pennsylvania in 2011 and he joined the Electrical and Computer Engineering department at Northeastern University as an Assistant Professor in January 2012.

    Dr. Rinaldi’s research focuses on understanding and exploiting the fundamental properties of micro/nanomechanical structures and advanced nanomaterials to engineer new classes of micro and nanoelectromechanical systems (M/NEMS) with unique and enabling features applied to the areas of chemical, physical and biological sensing and low power reconfigurable radio communication systems. In particular, his group has been actively working on experimental research topics and practical applications to ultra-low power MEMS/NEMS sensors (infrared, magnetic, chemical and biological), plasmonic micro and nano electromechanical devices, medical micro systems and implantable micro devices for intra-body networks, reconfigurable radio frequency devices and systems, phase change material switches, 2D material enabled micro and nano mechanical devices.

    Dr. Rinaldi founded the Northeastern Sensors and Nano Systems laboratory, which currently hosts 1 research scientist, 1 postdoctoral researcher and 11 Ph.D. students. 2 Ph.D. students and 7 M.S. students graduated from Dr. Rinaldi’s lab since January 2012.

    The research in Dr. Rinaldi’s group is supported by several Federal grants (including DARPA, NSF, DHS) and the Keck foundation with a total funding of $10,450,151 (PI’s share: $6,351,872) since January 2012.

    Dr. Rinaldi has co-authored more than 90 publications in the aforementioned research areas and also holds 6 patents and more than 10 device patent applications in the field of MEMS/NEMS. Dr. Rinaldi’s total number of citations since 2009 is 1126, the h-index is 18, and the i-10 index is 31 (Google Scholar Citation Index 12/1/2017). Dr. Rinaldi’s findings on MEMS/NEMS sensors and radio frequency devices and systems are often highlighted in the press, with recent appearances on TechCrunch, Digital Trends, IEEE Spectrum, LaserFocusWorld, and several others. Dr. Rinaldi’s recent work on Zero-Power Infrared Sensors was featured on the cover of Nature Nanotechnology in October 2017.

    Dr. Rinaldi was the recipient of the IEEE Sensors Council Early Career Award in 2015, the NSF CAREER Award in 2014 and the DARPA Young Faculty Award class of 2012. He received the Best Student Paper Award at the 2009, 2011, 2015 (with his student) and 2017 (with his student) IEEE International Frequency Control Symposiums and the Outstanding Paper Award at the 18th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, Transducers 2015 (with his student).

  • Moving acoustic field for the control of electronic excitations in semiconductor nanostructures

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagating on a semiconductor structure produces a potential modulation of the underlying material, which can control and transport electronic excitations. Due to its moving character, the SAW fields can also capture electrons and holes in a quantum well structure and transport them with the acoustic velocity. Novel functionalities for information processing can be realized by combining the acoustic transport with specially designed nanostructures. In the first part of the talk, I review recent results on the acoustic transport of carriers and spins using piezoelectric SAWs. The acoustic transport of optically excited electrons and holes in nanowire channels fabricated on a (Al,Ga)As nanostructure can be exploited for the realization of single-photon sources operating in the GHz frequency range.  The carriers are transported while maintaining their spin polarization. Finally, the moving spins can be manipulated during transport via the spin-orbit interaction or external fields and subsequently converted to polarized photons. This procedure allows for the controlled transport and manipulation of spins with subsequent optical read-out at temperatures above liquid nitrogen.

    The second part of the talk addresses the application of the strain field of a non-piezoelectric SAW to manipulate neutral excitations such as excitons and exciton polaritons. Excitons are neutral particles consisting of an electron-hole pair bound by the Coulomb interaction, which play a fundamental role in the absorption and emission of light in semiconductor structures. In addition, excitons are composite bosons and can, therefore, form Bose-Einstein condensates at low temperatures. Electrically controlled excitons can be transported by the moving band-gap modulation induced by the SAW strain over several hundreds of micrometers. The acoustic exciton transport enables the realization of acoustic exciton transistors and acousto-optical multiplexers, which can be combined in complex complex and scalable excitonic circuits. Excitons can be strongly coupled to photons in a semiconductor microcavity to form exciton-polariton condensates with spatial coherence lengths of several tens of mm. The strain modulation can coherently fragment these condensates leading to the formation of a lattice of mini-condensates trapped at the minima of the SAW potential. The lattice constant and inter-site interactions in the lattice then become controlled by the wavelength and amplitude of the SAW potential, respectively. These acoustically modulated condensate lattices are, to a great extent, solid-state analogs of optical lattices of cold atoms: they form, therefore, a prototype system for the investigation of many body interactions (such as Josephson coupling) in non-equilibrium quantum phases in the solid state.

  • Paulo V. Santos  received his Master in Electrical engineering from the University of Campinas, Brazil and subsequently a Ph.D. degree in Physics from the University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany. After post-doctoral appointments at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in California, USA and at the Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Physics in Stuttgart, Germany, he joined the Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik in Berlin, Germany in 1997 as a senior scientist. His research interests include optical spectroscopy and mechanical properties of semiconductor nanostructures, including the interaction between semiconductor excitations with high-frequency acoustic waves. He is the author of approximately 300 publications, including peer-reviewed journal articles, book chapters, and patents.

     

  • Paulo V. Santos  received his Master in Electrical engineering from the University of Campinas, Brazil and subsequently a Ph.D. degree in Physics from the University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany. After post-doctoral appointments at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in California, USA and at the Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Physics in Stuttgart, Germany, he joined the Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik in Berlin, Germany in 1997 as a senior scientist. His research interests include optical spectroscopy and mechanical properties of semiconductor nanostructures, including the interaction between semiconductor excitations with high-frequency acoustic waves. He is the author of approximately 300 publications, including peer-reviewed journal articles, book chapters, and patents.

     

  • Evaluation method for high-power piezoelectric materials and devices

    It’s well-know that the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric materials limits the performance of high-power ultrasonic devices. For developing these devices, understanding of the nonlinear piezoelectric vibration is essential challenge. However, the complicated phenomena, such as admittance curve deformation near the resonant peak, a jumping and a hysteresis between the different sweep directions, were obstacle to find the main sources of the nonlinearity. Therefore, it had been quite difficult to consider the maximum output power in designing the devices. In addition, for evaluating the piezoelectric materials, there had not been quantitative parameters suitable for hard-type piezoelectric materials.

     To clarify the nonlinear vibration mechanism of hard-type piezoelectric materials, two measurement methods, burst-mode method and admittance measurement under high power level were introduced. By comparing these results, it was found that the nonlinear terms exist only in mechanical compliance and mechanical damping in piezoelectric parameters. In other words, you can treat the force factor, the damped capacitor and the mechanical mass as constant parameters.

     Based on our nonlinear model, various simulations became possible. By evaluating the nonlinear parameters, it was clarified that the CuO-doped KNN ceramic has superior performance for high-power ultrasonic transducer compared to the conventional PZT ceramic. Putting the nonlinear parameters into the transfer-matrix model, the temperature effect under high-power operation could be taken into account. It means the high-power ultrasonic transducer can be designed including the temperature distribution. Recently, this nonlinear transfer-matrix model was adapted to the Langevin transducer and good agreement was confirmed between simulation and experimental results. I believe our nonlinear model would be useful for the future development of the high-power ultrasonic devices.

  • Takeshi MORITA received B.Eng., M.Eng. and Dr.Eng. degrees in precision machinery engineering from the University of Tokyo in 1994, 1996, and 1999, respectively. After being a postdoctoral researcher at RIKEN (the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and at EPFL (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), he became a research associate at Tohoku University in 2002. Since 2005, he has been an associate professor at the University of Tokyo. His research interests include piezoelectric actuators and sensors, their fabrication processes, and control systems.

     

  • Takeshi MORITA received B.Eng., M.Eng. and Dr.Eng. degrees in precision machinery engineering from the University of Tokyo in 1994, 1996, and 1999, respectively. After being a postdoctoral researcher at RIKEN (the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and at EPFL (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), he became a research associate at Tohoku University in 2002. Since 2005, he has been an associate professor at the University of Tokyo. His research interests include piezoelectric actuators and sensors, their fabrication processes, and control systems.

  • Hierarchical Cascading in FEM Simulations of SAW Devices

    Fast development of SAW filters, which is becoming ever more complicated, demands precise and universal simulation tools. The finite element method (FEM) is very attractive due to its remarkable generality. FEM can handle arbitrary materials and crystal cuts, different electrode shapes, and structures including multiple metal and dielectric layers. Traditionally, the application of FEM to the SAW devices has been hampered by the difficulty of modeling the effectively semi-infinite substrate crystal, and the very large memory consumption and long computation times required. These obstacles have been essentially removed by the recent introduction of the perfectly matched layers (PML) [1,2] and the hierarchical cascading method [3,4]. The goal of this paper is to provide of an overview of the approach, focusing on aspects relevant to practical SAW modeling.

     

    The device geometry is analyzed and partitioned into small, repeatedly used building blocks. Identical building blocks need to be modeled with FEM only once. To avoid instabilities in the simulation, the PMLs need to be chosen according to the anisotropy of the substrate crystal. Moreover, to ensure efficient and accurate simulation, the computational mesh should be optimized to the substrate. The device is presented as a hierarchical cascading tree, where smaller blocks are combined into larger blocks until the electric admittance of the entire device has been simulated. Inverse cascading can be used to enable more options for analyzing the device, such as field and power flow visualization at every point of the device, and the evaluation of acoustic radiation losses and Q-factor.

     

    The hierarchical cascading approach has proven an efficient and capable tool for simulating of finite SAW devices with FEM. The electric response can be evaluated and loss mechanisms analyzed in complex layered SAW structures. The approach has been shown feasible for 3D simulation of finite SAW devices [5].

    [1] M. Mayer et al, “Perfectly matched layer finite element simulation of parasitic acoustic wave radiation in microacoustic devices”, 2007 IEEE International Ultrasonics symp. proc.

    [2] K. C. Meza-Fajardo and A. S. Papageorgiou, “Study of the stability and accuracy of a nonconvolutional, split-field perfectly matched layer (PML) for wave propagation in elastic media”, The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Oct. 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China.

    [3] J. Koskela et al., “Hierarchical cascading in 2D FEM simulation of finite SAW devices with periodic block structure”, 2016 IEEE International Ultrasonics symp. proc.

    [4] J. Koskela, V. Plessky, P. Maniadis, P. Turner, and B. Willemsen, “Rapid 2D FEM simulation of advanced SAW devices”, TH02C_4, in Proc. of IMS, 2017, Honolulu, Hawaii.

    [5] M. Solal et al., “Full 3D simulation of SAW resonators using hierarchical cascading FEM”, 2017 IEEE International Ultrasonics symp. proc.

  • Julius Koskela started surface-acoustic wave (SAW) modeling in Helsinki University of Technology 1996, as a student of Professors Martti Salomaa and Victor Plessky. He received his DrTech degree in technical physics from Helsinki University of Technology in 2001. Thereafter, he joined Nokia Research Center. Since 2005, he has been with Philips Healthcare. He also works as a free consultant in SAW modeling via GVR Trade SA (www.gvrtrade.com), now a wholly owned subsidiary of Resonant Inc., CA. He is a co-recipient of the IEEE UFFC-S Outstanding Paper Award 2001. His professional interests include SAW modeling and physics, algorithm development, and medical image processing. He is passionate about rapid computational techniques, and enjoys living in the diffuse space between research and product development.

     

  • Victor Plessky was born in Gomel, (Belarus) 02 July 1952. He works for many years in area of surface acoustic wave (SAW) physics and devices. He predicted theoretically (together with Yu. Gulyaev and independently on Auld, Gagnepain & Tan) the existence of Surface Transverse Waves (STW) – a new type of waves now widely used for design of high-Q resonators. His theory of the “leaky wave” propagation in periodic grating (so-called “Plessky equation”) was basic for understanding of the leaky waves propagation in periodic structures. He published more than 300 papers and authored about 30 patents.   As a Visiting Professor, he collaborated more than 12 years with HUT, Finland. He was lecturing in Freiburg Uni., in EPFL (Lausanne) and in Angstrom Lab, (Sweden). He also held position of “Chair of Excellence” in ENSMM (Technical University, Institute FEMTO) in Besançon, France for years 2011-2012.

    He was supervisor and consultant of 14 Ph.D. thesis’s. Dr. V. Plessky holds a title of “Full Professor” granted to him by Russian Government in 1995. He was a winner of a Lenin Komsomol award (3rd state Premium in ex-USSR) for young scientists, 1978, and got “Outstanding paper award” from IEEE in 2001. Currently he works in Switzerland as Consultant in micro/nano acoustics physics and devices, for a consulting company GVR Trade SA (www.gvrtrade.com), now wholly owned subsidiary of Resonant Inc., CA.

  • Julius Koskela started surface-acoustic wave (SAW) modeling in Helsinki University of Technology 1996, as a student of Professors Martti Salomaa and Victor Plessky. He received his DrTech degree in technical physics from Helsinki University of Technology in 2001. Thereafter, he joined Nokia Research Center. Since 2005, he has been with Philips Healthcare. He also works as a free consultant in SAW modeling via GVR Trade SA (www.gvrtrade.com), now a wholly owned subsidiary of Resonant Inc., CA. He is a co-recipient of the IEEE UFFC-S Outstanding Paper Award 2001. His professional interests include SAW modeling and physics, algorithm development, and medical image processing. He is passionate about rapid computational techniques, and enjoys living in the diffuse space between research and product development.

     

  • Victor Plessky was born in Gomel, (Belarus) 02 July 1952. He works for many years in area of surface acoustic wave (SAW) physics and devices. He predicted theoretically (together with Yu. Gulyaev and independently on Auld, Gagnepain & Tan) the existence of Surface Transverse Waves (STW) – a new type of waves now widely used for design of high-Q resonators. His theory of the “leaky wave” propagation in periodic grating (so-called “Plessky equation”) was basic for understanding of the leaky waves propagation in periodic structures. He published more than 300 papers and authored about 30 patents.   As a Visiting Professor, he collaborated more than 12 years with HUT, Finland. He was lecturing in Freiburg Uni., in EPFL (Lausanne) and in Angstrom Lab, (Sweden). He also held position of “Chair of Excellence” in ENSMM (Technical University, Institute FEMTO) in Besançon, France for years 2011-2012.

    He was supervisor and consultant of 14 Ph.D. thesis’s. Dr. V. Plessky holds a title of “Full Professor” granted to him by Russian Government in 1995. He was a winner of a Lenin Komsomol award (3rd state Premium in ex-USSR) for young scientists, 1978, and got “Outstanding paper award” from IEEE in 2001. Currently he works in Switzerland as Consultant in micro/nano acoustics physics and devices, for a consulting company GVR Trade SA (www.gvrtrade.com), now wholly owned subsidiary of Resonant Inc., CA.

  • Transverse modes in temperature compensated surface acoustic wave devices

    Currently, the SiO2/LiNbO3 (LN) structure combined with heavy metal electrodes is widely used to realize high performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with temperature compensation. In comparison with conventional 42oYX-LiTaO3 case, two additional issues must be addressed for their development. One is suppression of spurious resonances caused by a secondary SAW, and another is suppression of those caused by lateral SAW propagation called the transverse resonances. The author’s group pointed out that these two issues are closely related to each other, and coupling between two SAW modes gives significant influences to behavior of these spurious resonances. This talk discusses influence of the coupling between two SAW modes to the spurious resonances. It should be noted that the influence is apparent only when their velocities are close to each other. It is shown that the effective K2 of the secondary SAW becomes zero when the coupling and the velocity difference are appropriate. In the situation, K2 for the primary SAW takes a maximum. It is also shown that shape of SAW slowness curves changes with the coupling. This makes various impacts on the lateral SAW propagation, which are not explained by the traditional scalar potential theory. Its extension, the thin plate model, is used to reveal how variation of the slowness curves influence transverse mode characteristics. Finally, a few device configuration are designed using the thin plate model. Their performances are calculated by the 3D FEM, and validity of all the analyses is confirmed.

  • Ken-ya Hashimoto received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering in 1978 and 1980, respectively, from Chiba University, Chiba, Japan, and a Dr. Eng. degree in 1989 from Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan. In 1980, he joined Chiba University as a research associate, and is now a professor of the University. He was a Visiting Professor of Helsinki University of Technology, Finland in 1998,. a Visiting Scientist of the Laboratoire de Physique et Metrologie des Oscillateurs, CNRS, France, in 1998-1999, a Visiting Professor of the Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria, in 1999 and 2001, a Visiting Scientist of the Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Science, China in 2005-2006. a Visiting Professor of the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China, in 2009-2012, and now is a Guest Professor of Shangahi Jiatong University, China, from 2014.

    His current research interests include simulation and design of various high-performance surface and bulk acoustic wave devices, acoustic wave sensors and actuators, piezoelectric materials and RF circuit design.

  • Ken-ya Hashimoto received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering in 1978 and 1980, respectively, from Chiba University, Chiba, Japan, and a Dr. Eng. degree in 1989 from Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan. In 1980, he joined Chiba University as a research associate, and is now a professor of the University. He was a Visiting Professor of Helsinki University of Technology, Finland in 1998,. a Visiting Scientist of the Laboratoire de Physique et Metrologie des Oscillateurs, CNRS, France, in 1998-1999, a Visiting Professor of the Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria, in 1999 and 2001, a Visiting Scientist of the Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Science, China in 2005-2006. a Visiting Professor of the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China, in 2009-2012, and now is a Guest Professor of Shangahi Jiatong University, China, from 2014.

    His current research interests include simulation and design of various high-performance surface and bulk acoustic wave devices, acoustic wave sensors and actuators, piezoelectric materials and RF circuit design.

  • Prof. Eric Adler’s Legacy to Microwave Acoustics

    Eric passed away on November 06, 2017, after a long and bright career in microwave acoustics that helped, inspired and motivated students and colleagues. Advisor, mentor, righteous guide, friend, clear, sharp, focused and objective in addressing any situation or problem, always ready to listen and ponder. What else could one ask from an outstanding engineer, educator, colleague, and friend? As his last doctoral student before his retirement, I had the opportunity to enjoy all those qualities in a mix of blessed opportunities. Eric retired in 1995, one year after I finished my PhD, and I certainly did not want to let him step down in peace. I was fortunate to continue to discuss technical issues with him for more than a decade after his retirement.

    Eric’s contributions to our society were significant. His 2001 Achievement Award of the IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society rightfully reads “For his extensive contributions to the understanding and analysis of bulk, surface and pseudo-surface acoustic waves in single crystals and layered structures, and his years of service to the Society.” Advised on his PhD by Gerry Farnell, Eric co-authored with him fundamental papers and chapters on bulk, surface, and pseudo-surface acoustic wave propagation on anisotropic crystal, and crystal orientations and properties. Throughout several decades, his work broadened to encompass surface, bulk, and multilayer thin film propagation and transduction modeling, which led to several of the current microwave acoustic device applications in frequency control, sensors, and mobile systems that we enjoy today.

    Eric’s impressive credentials include being an electrical engineer educator since the late 1950’s; Professor Emeritus; Associate Dean (Academic) at McGill Faculty of Engineering; IEEE Fellow; IEEE UFFC Distinguished Lecturer; UFFC-Society Adcom member; and reviewer for this conference, IEEE UFFC transactions, and other acoustic wave journals. Even though Eric’s physical presence and mentorship will be missed in our day-to-day activities, we will continue to benefit from his past service, research, publications, and acoustic wave propagation and modeling programs. His legacy to our society and our field will remain strong, and continue to guide researchers and students throughout the world.

  • Mauricio Pereira da Cunha, born in Brazil in 1963, received the Bachelor’s degree, 1985, and the Master’s with Honors in electrical engineering, 1989, from the Escola Politécnica, Universidade de São Paulo. Master’s thesis title is “Design and Implementation of a 70 MHz SAW Convolver.” He received the Ph.D. degree, Dean’s Honor List, from McGill University, Montreal, PQ, Canada, in electrical engineering in 1994.Ph.D. thesis title is “SAW Propagation and Device Modeling on Arbitrarily Oriented Substrates”.

    Mauricio has worked with the Microwave Devices R&D Group at NEC (Nippon Electric Co.), Brazil, Laboratório de Microeletrônica, Escola Politécnica, Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidade de São Paulo, McGill University, Montreal, PQ, Canada, and SAWTEK Inc., Orlando, FL. He passed a sabbatical year at University of Central Florida, Consortium for Applied Acoustoelectronic Technology (CAAT), Orlando, FL, where he worked in cooperation with Piezotechnology Inc, on the characterization of new piezoelectric materials, namely langatate, langanite, and langasite, and with bulk and surface acoustic wave devices. Mauricio was a Professor in the Department of Electronic Engineering, Universidade de São Paulo until he joined the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Maine in 2001, where he presently holds the position of Professor.

    Dr. Pereira da Cunha is a member of the IEEE, Sigma Xi, and of the Brazilian Microwave Society (SBMO). He was elected to serve on the SBMO Administrative Committee from 1996 to 1999. He is a reviewer and a past associate editor for the IEEE UFFC TRANSACTIONS, and he has been a member of the IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium Technical Program Committee since 1997. He has served as an elected society representative on the UFFC-Society Administrative Committee from 2002–2004, served as Technical Program Committee Chair for the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium in 2007 and 2012, in New York, U.S.A., and Dresden, Germany, respectively, as the vice-VP for Ultrasonics from 2007-2008, and as the VP for Ultrasonics from 2009-10. He has more than 180 journal and conference publications and presentations in the area of microwave acoustic propagation, acoustic wave material properties, bulk and surface acoustic wave modeling and devices, and sensors.

  • Mauricio Pereira da Cunha, born in Brazil in 1963, received the Bachelor’s degree, 1985, and the Master’s with Honors in electrical engineering, 1989, from the Escola Politécnica, Universidade de São Paulo. Master’s thesis title is “Design and Implementation of a 70 MHz SAW Convolver.” He received the Ph.D. degree, Dean’s Honor List, from McGill University, Montreal, PQ, Canada, in electrical engineering in 1994.Ph.D. thesis title is “SAW Propagation and Device Modeling on Arbitrarily Oriented Substrates”.

    Mauricio has worked with the Microwave Devices R&D Group at NEC (Nippon Electric Co.), Brazil, Laboratório de Microeletrônica, Escola Politécnica, Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidade de São Paulo, McGill University, Montreal, PQ, Canada, and SAWTEK Inc., Orlando, FL. He passed a sabbatical year at University of Central Florida, Consortium for Applied Acoustoelectronic Technology (CAAT), Orlando, FL, where he worked in cooperation with Piezotechnology Inc, on the characterization of new piezoelectric materials, namely langatate, langanite, and langasite, and with bulk and surface acoustic wave devices. Mauricio was a Professor in the Department of Electronic Engineering, Universidade de São Paulo until he joined the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Maine in 2001, where he presently holds the position of Professor.

    Dr. Pereira da Cunha is a member of the IEEE, Sigma Xi, and of the Brazilian Microwave Society (SBMO). He was elected to serve on the SBMO Administrative Committee from 1996 to 1999. He is a reviewer and a past associate editor for the IEEE UFFC TRANSACTIONS, and he has been a member of the IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium Technical Program Committee since 1997. He has served as an elected society representative on the UFFC-Society Administrative Committee from 2002–2004, served as Technical Program Committee Chair for the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium in 2007 and 2012, in New York, U.S.A., and Dresden, Germany, respectively, as the vice-VP for Ultrasonics from 2007-2008, and as the VP for Ultrasonics from 2009-10. He has more than 180 journal and conference publications and presentations in the area of microwave acoustic propagation, acoustic wave material properties, bulk and surface acoustic wave modeling and devices, and sensors.

  • Collapse-mode CMUT: design and characterization

    Philips Research has been developing a CMUT platform during the last 10 years, aiming at a wide range of ultrasound transducers for various applications including conventional imaging probes and catheters, and potential new applications. The versatility of this platform results in a wide frequency range (1 to 50 MHz) and transducers dimensions in the range from ~1 mm2 to ~25 cm2, that can be designed with the CMUT technology.

    This presentation shows the design of collapse-mode CMUTs using a single wafer CMOS compatible process. The measurements of both the electrical impedance, as a function of bias voltage, as well as the acoustical properties such as the output pressure and bandwidth, demonstrate their potential in terms of linearity and frequency tunability for ultrasound imaging.

  • Chris van Heesch started working at Philips Research in 2007 after finishing his PhD on polarization selective diffraction gratings at Eindhoven University of Technology. Next to working on new lithographic methods using self-assembly of block copolymers, he has been part of a growing team of multidisciplinary experts, with disciplines ranging from physics-based modelling to medical application development. They succeeded in optimizing the performance of the CMUT transducers, so that they can compete with commercial piezo transducers available today. Furthermore, they have been able to demonstrate new application opportunities. Chris van Heesch is an inventor and contributed to more than 16 patents applications owned by Philips worldwide in the fields of CMUT, lithography and diffraction optics.

  • Chris van Heesch started working at Philips Research in 2007 after finishing his PhD on polarization selective diffraction gratings at Eindhoven University of Technology. Next to working on new lithographic methods using self-assembly of block copolymers, he has been part of a growing team of multidisciplinary experts, with disciplines ranging from physics-based modelling to medical application development. They succeeded in optimizing the performance of the CMUT transducers, so that they can compete with commercial piezo transducers available today. Furthermore, they have been able to demonstrate new application opportunities. Chris van Heesch is an inventor and contributed to more than 16 patents applications owned by Philips worldwide in the fields of CMUT, lithography and diffraction optics.

  • Thin Film PZT-based PMUT arrays

    1) Background, Motivation and Objective
    Miniaturized high frequency ultrasound systems offer the opportunity to create small form factor systems for applications in medical imaging (including ultrasound pill cameras), acoustic control of motion of suspended particles, and detection of the veins in the fingers for improved identification systems. The goal in this work was to develop piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducers (PMUT) using PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) films for these purposes. PMUTs were fabricated both on rigid silicon (Si) substrates and on flexible polyimide platforms.

    (2) Statement of Contribution/Methods
    PMUTs were fabricated using two different approaches. In the first method, Si on insulator (SOI) wafers were used as substrates. Pt/PZT/Pt/Ti stacks were deposited by sputtering (or a combination of sputtering and chemical solution deposition) as blanket layers, and were subsequently patterned top-down using conventional nanofabrication processes. The final structures were then released by deep-reactive ion etching of the handle Si wafers. As an alternative, polyimide/Pt/Ti/PZT/Pt/Ti/Al2O3/ZnO stacks were grown on SiO2/Si. Following top-down patterning, the structures could be released from the underlying Si substrate by undercutting the ZnO layer in a dilute acetic acid bath. The latter method ultimately allows the preparation of flexible transducer arrays using high piezoelectric coefficient materials. Finite element modelling was used in both cases to design devices with resonant frequencies between 8 and 80 MHz.

    (3) Results, Discussion and Conclusions
    Air-backed PMUT transducer arrays on deep reactive ion etched Si (See Fig. 1) were poled at 150°C for 15 minutes at high fields to provide a stable polarization direction for the piezoelectric film. After wire-bonding to a package and water-proofing with parylene, ~67% bandwidth was achieved in 35 MHz annular PMUT arrays. Data will also be presented for linear and 2D arrays.
    Fig. 1 also shows a released PZT film on a polyimide substrate. While PMUTs could benefit immensely from flexible, reconfigurable polymeric substrates, a critical challenge lies in the discordance between the high crystallization temperatures of many perovskite materials and the low decomposition temperature of the plastic, thus leaving limited options for direct deposition of high strain piezoelectric films on polymers. The released PZT on polyimide exhibited enhanced dielectric response due to a reduction in clamping from the low stiffness, low thickness polymer layer. After release from the Si, polarization – electric field hysteresis measurements showed an increase in remanent polarization from 17.5 µC/cm2 to 26 µC/cm2 compared to the same films clamped on Si. In addition, poling to 3 times the coercive field at 125 oC led to more ferroelastic realignment in the released films. These films are now being explored for transducer arrays.

     

     

     

     

    Fig. 1:  (Left) Mounted annular PMUT array on deep-reactive ion etched Si, (Middle) close-up of annular array, (Right) released PZT films on polyimide with excellent flexibility

  • Susan Trolier-McKinstry is the Steward S. Flaschen Professor of Ceramic Science and Engineering, Professor of Electrical Engineering, and Director of the Nanofabrication facility at the Pennsylvania State University.  Her main research interests revolve around thin films for dielectric and piezoelectric applications.  Her group studies the fundamental mechanisms that control the properties of ferroelectric films, the processing science associated with growing and patterning films, and piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems; they have published >400 papers in this field.  She is a fellow of the American Ceramic Society, IEEE, and the Materials Research Society, and an academician of the World Academy of Ceramics. She currently serves as an associate editor for Applied Physics Letters.  She was the 2017 President of the Materials Research Society; previously she served as president of the IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control Society, as well as Keramos.  She is the recipient of the IEEE Ferroelectrics Achievement Award, the Robert E. Newnham Award, the Jeppson, Fulrath, and Robert Coble Awards of the American Ceramic Society, the Wilson Outstanding Research Award, the Ceramics Education Council Outstanding Educator Award, the Wilson Award for Outstanding Teaching in the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, the Materials Research Laboratory Outstanding Faculty Award, and a National Science Foundation Career grant. She was a Distinguished Lecturer for IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society.  Twenty-one people that she has advised/co-advised have taken faculty positions around the world.

     

  • Susan Trolier-McKinstry is the Steward S. Flaschen Professor of Ceramic Science and Engineering, Professor of Electrical Engineering, and Director of the Nanofabrication facility at the Pennsylvania State University.  Her main research interests revolve around thin films for dielectric and piezoelectric applications.  Her group studies the fundamental mechanisms that control the properties of ferroelectric films, the processing science associated with growing and patterning films, and piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems; they have published >400 papers in this field.  She is a fellow of the American Ceramic Society, IEEE, and the Materials Research Society, and an academician of the World Academy of Ceramics. She currently serves as an associate editor for Applied Physics Letters.  She was the 2017 President of the Materials Research Society; previously she served as president of the IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control Society, as well as Keramos.  She is the recipient of the IEEE Ferroelectrics Achievement Award, the Robert E. Newnham Award, the Jeppson, Fulrath, and Robert Coble Awards of the American Ceramic Society, the Wilson Outstanding Research Award, the Ceramics Education Council Outstanding Educator Award, the Wilson Award for Outstanding Teaching in the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, the Materials Research Laboratory Outstanding Faculty Award, and a National Science Foundation Career grant. She was a Distinguished Lecturer for IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society.  Twenty-one people that she has advised/co-advised have taken faculty positions around the world.

     

  • Technology development of Photoacousitc imaging system in CANON

    Photoacoustic imaging is an attractive technology to visualize blood vessels in human body without invasiveness or ionizing radiation. Canon had researched and developed photoacoustic imaging technologies in collaboration with Kyoto University, which was named the “Innovative Techno-Hub for Integrated Medical Bio-imaging” (CK Project), from 2006 to 2015. In that time, we demonstrated the diagnostic performance for breast cancer patients by exploratory clinical research with using photoacoustic imaging system prototype. In the project, we developed a hemisphere array scanning system for high-resolution 3D imaging.

    In CK project, we developed a photoacoustic imaging system, called “PAI-04”, for breast imaging. To image various sizes of the blood vessels, 500CH CMUT sensors with large-bandwidth were installed to the hemisphere array. The PAI-04 works for clinical research in Kyoto University hospital. In order to expand clinical application area, we promote research and development of the photoacoustic technologies under a program which was taken over by ImPACT (Impulsing Paradigm Change through Disruptive Technologies Program) established in the Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (CSTI) of the Cabinet Office, Japan. The ImPACT program aims to develop real-time 3D visualization technologies by using photoacoustic imaging that can image blood vessels in which abnormalities appear with illnesses. We developed another photoacoustic imaging system, called “PAI-05” under the ImPACT program in collaboration with Hitachi, Ltd. and JAPAN PROBE CO., LTD. The hemisphere array in PAI-05 has over 1000CH Piezo-composite sensors to realize real-time 3D imaging. The PAI-05 works for clinical research study in ImPACT program.

    In our talk, we introduce these photoacoustic imaging systems:

    • photoacoustic imaging system, PAI-04
    • photoacoustic imaging system, PAI-05
  • Kenichi Nagae

     

     

     

     

     

    WORK

    2017.01-present: R&D Headquarters, Canon Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
    Lead Scientist
    -System design and validation of Photoacoustic imaging system

    2000.04-2016.12: R&D Headquarters, Canon Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
    Scientist

    EDUCATION

    1998.04-2000.03 (MS):
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

    1994.04-1998.03 (BS)
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

  • Kenichi Nagae

     

     

     

     

     

    WORK

    2017.01-present: R&D Headquarters, Canon Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
    Lead Scientist
    -System design and validation of Photoacoustic imaging system

    2000.04-2016.12: R&D Headquarters, Canon Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
    Scientist

    EDUCATION

    1998.04-2000.03 (MS):
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

    1994.04-1998.03 (BS)
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.