Guidelines for Preparing References

Format references according to IEEE Style. The following table describes specific formatting requirements and provides samples.    

Type of Reference How You Should Format It
Article in a periodical Format as follows:[sequence-number] Author’s first initial.  Author’s second initial (if provided). Author’s last name, (If the reference has additional authors, list them in the same way; place the word “and” before the name of the last author), “Title of article (within quotation marks, only initial cap first word and proper nouns),” Journal Title (in italics, initial cap the title of the journal in an upstyle), vol. volume-number, no. edition-number, pp. range-of-page-numbers, publication-year. Example:

[1] I. Thompson, “Women and feminism in technical communication,” Journal of Business and Technical Communication, vol. 13, no. 2, pp.154–178, 1999.

Article in an online journal Format as follows:[sequence-number] Author’s first initial.  Author’s second initial (if provided). Author’s last name. (If the reference has additional authors, list them in the same way; place the word “and” before the name of the last author.) Title of article (do not place within quotation marks, only initial cap first word and proper nouns),” Journal Title (in italics, initial cap the title of the journal in an upstyle). [Online]. Available: complete web address of the article. Example:

[2] M. B. Sarkar, B. Butler, and C. Steinfield. (1995). Intermediaries and cybermediaries: A continuing role for mediating players in the electronic marketplace. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. [Online]. Available: http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol1/issue3/sarkar.html

Book Format as follows:[sequence-number] Author’s first initial.  Author’s second initial (if provided), Author’s last name, (If the reference has additional authors, list them in the same way; place the word “and” before the name of the last author), Book Title (in italics, initial cap the title of the journal in an upstyle). Publisher ‘s city, abbreviation for publisher’s state: Publisher’s name, year of publication.Examples:

[3] M. S. MacNealy, Strategies for Empirical Research in Writing. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1999.

[4] J. H. Watt and S. A. van den Berg, Research Methods for Communication Science. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1995.

Chapter in a book Format as follows:[sequence-number] Author’s first initial.  Author’s second initial (if provided). Author’s last name, (If the reference has additional authors, list them in the same way; place the word “and” before the name of the last author), “Title of article (within quotation marks, only initial cap first word and proper nouns),” in Author’s first initial.  Author’s second initial (if provided). Author’s last name, (If the reference has additional authors, list them in the same way; place the word “and” before the name of the last author), Book Title (in italics, initial cap the title of the journal in an upstyle). Publisher ‘s city, abbreviation for publisher’s state: Publisher’s name, year of publication, pp. range-of-page-numbers.Example:

[5] S. Kleinmann, “The reciprocal relationship of workplace culture and review,” in Writing in the Workplace: New Research Perspectives, R. Spilka, Ed. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993, pp. 56–70.

Conference presentation Format as follows:[sequence-number] Author’s first initial.  Author’s second initial (if provided). Author’s last name, (If the reference has additional authors, list them in the same way; place the word “and” before the name of the last author), “Title of presentation (within quotation marks, only initial cap first word and proper nouns),”presented at Conference Name (initial cap the title of the conference in an upstyle), conference city, abbreviation for conference state or country, Month day-day, year.Example:

[6] K. Riley, “Language theory: Application versus practice,” presented at the Conf. of the Modern Language Association, Boston, MA, December 27–30, 1990.

Paper published in a Proceedings Format as follows:[sequence-number] Author’s first initial.  Author’s second initial (if provided). Author’s last name, (If the reference has additional authors, list them in the same way; place the word “and” before the name of the last author), in Proceedings of Conference Name (italicize, initial cap the title of the conference in an upstyle), year, pp. range-of-page-numbers.Example:

[7] K. St.Amant, “Virtual office communication protocols: A system for managing international virtual teams,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Professional Communication Conference, 2005, pp. 703–717.

Website Format as follows:[sequence-number] Name of the website. [Online]. Available: complete web address of the website.Example:

[8] Structural Engineering Society–International.[Online]. Available: http://www.seaint.org

 

For more examples Check recent articles from the journal for examples.